Nelson JA, Bugbee B (2014) Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Lighting: Light Emitting Diodes vs. High Intensity Discharge Fixtures. PLoS ONE 9(6): e99010. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099010

An Osage expose

Wikipedia – Maclura pomifera

Barnett, J. P., & Burton, J. D. (1997). Osage-orange: A pioneering stewardship species. Tree Planters’ Notes. (Link to PDF)

USDA Plant Guide — Osage Orange

History and Economic Uses

Rot Resistance: Fence Posts

This fence post study was reported on in 1996 after the posts had been in the ground for 66 years. All of the untreated osage orange fence posts were still sound in 2016 after 86+ years in the ground (Jeff Morrell, original author, personal communication, February 2016). No other species, treated or untreated, had any remaining posts over this time.


  • A few selected papers from the recent scientific literature


Whittinghill, L. J., Rowe, D. B., Schutzki, R., & Cregg, B. M. (2014). Quantifying carbon sequestration of various green roof and ornamental landscape systems. Landscape and Urban Planning, 123, 41–48.


Johnston, M. R., Balster, N. J., & Zhu, J. (2015). Impact of Residential Prairie Gardens on the Physical Properties of Urban Soil in Madison, Wisconsin. Journal of Environment Quality.doi:10.2134/jeq2015.02.0093 (click here)


Visscher, R. S., Nassauer, J. I., & Marshall, L. L. (2016). Homeowner preferences for wooded front yards and backyards: Implications for carbon storage. Landscape and Urban Planning, 146, 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.09.001 (click here)

Matthew R. Jorgensen. (2016). Vulnerability to Climate Change: Assessing Trees on the University of Oregon Campus. University of Oregon. (click here)


Cleveland, D. A., Phares, N., Nightingale, K. D., Weatherby, R. L., Radis, W., Ballard, J., … Wilkins, K. (2017). The potential for urban household vegetable gardens to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Landscape and Urban Planning, 157, 365–374.

General Climate Change

  • A massive body of scientific evidence strongly supports the existence of human-caused climate change and its negative consequences (see IPCC). Nevertheless, fabricated controversies and conspiracy theories persist. The plant sync doesn’t engage in these “debates.”  There are numerous venues, such as RealClimate that inform and engage technical discussions about climate change.
  • Apart from the science community, most of the “real world” has moved on from debating the reality of climate change. An extensive list of websites with affirmation of climate change by non-science entities is compiled here